To clarify the terms: Intonation means making the adjustment so that the pitch at the 12th fret matches the pitch at the open fret (or however you are setting it). The intonation is adjusted by moving the bridge saddle forward or backward a small amount.
Compensation is the small distance that the saddle ends up beyond where it should theoretically be for the scale length of the bass, after you've adjusted the Intonation. The Compensation distance will be different on each string, varying from about 1/16" on a low-action high string to about 1/4" on a high-action low string.
The reason that you need that Compensation is that, when you push down on a string, you are slightly increasing its tension, because you are bending it just a bit. Because of that, if the saddle is exactly at the scale length distance (no Compensation), the fretted note will go slightly sharp. So, you add Compensation, moving the saddle back just enough to bring the octave note down to the right pitch.
How much Compensation you will need for each string will depend on three things:
The type of string: Usually, springier strings like roundwounds will need less Compensation than stiffer strings like flatwounds.
The gauge of the string: The larger the string, the more Compensation is needed. That's why you see more on the E than on the G.
The Action height: The higher the action, the more Compensation is needed, because you have to push the string down further.
That's about it. All strings will need some amount of Compensation to be Intonated correctly. The Compensation will always be a small amount of extra length, moving the saddle back away from the neck. That's why, when you locate a bridge on a new instrument, you need to first move the saddles up to the forward end of their travel, and then locate that to the theoretical scale length point. The saddles need to have room to move back, not forward.