I suspect that you should really be asking this question on a medical site, but since you seem earnest and I appreciate your confusion, I'll tell you what I know.
Once a blister starts, the outer skin will die. If you pop it with a pin, it will only speed the healing. The outer skin will fall off after a week or so and you'll be left with fresh, tender skin.
Band-aids, superglue, etc, didn't help me much. I ultimately resorted to playing with other fingers when the injured finger was healing.
If you play a bit every day, the liklihood of a blister is dramatically reduced. These days, I tend to practice nearly every day for 2 to 4 hours and I haven't seen a blister in years. The calluses are very thick however, and seem to thicken after every practice.
The truth as I know it. There's no short cut.