I love my Bloody Valentine. I was playing the Ride during the week, another good band from that era.
I suspect there was actually few effects on the bass. It's the guitars which mostly have tons and tons of effects (on tons of guitar tracks too).
Fuzz and reverb or echo will do the trick. A pedal such as the EH bass Micro Synth might also be interesting to test out.
Devi Ever is generally credited with creating many pedals used by shoe gazers. That being said I've tried a couple of her pedals and hated them. The build inside them was also terrible, poorly designed and sloppy. I would test before I buy with this builder.