Yes and no. It happens, but it's not really anything you can try to schedule. I did a two week on Seabourne Cruise Lines
because a bunch of things lined up -
1. the prior band's contract was up and they were not being renewed
2. the next cruise was NYC to Quebec City and back, one week out, one week back
3. the next band wasn't going to meet the boat until they did the following cruise in the Caribbean
So they just needed a NYC based band for 2 weeks so that they didn't have to fly anybody anywhere.
Couple of thoughts - depending on the genre of music you play, you might want to see if there are any sponsored cruises (there are at least a couple of Jazz Cruises every year) for your style of music. OR see if there are groups in your area that are planning a chartered cruise and offer to be the band. The boat being chartered will likely have a band, but if you're bartering your services for the ride (that whoever's chartering the boat will pay for), it's not likely that the boat or the band will care much.