Of the American manufacturers of doublebasses that started after the Hitler-era embargo of spring 1933, only the H.N. White Company made their own tuning machines in the factory metal working shop. All of the rest of them, Kay, Epiphone, and Gibson, used Kluson tuning machines. The two bass models, the plain American Standard orchestral model and the fancier dance band King Moretone model, had their own distinct sets. They were identical except for the fancy engraving for the King Moretone models. The designs were quite beautiful and the workmanship was execellent. Of note is the very nice chamfered string holes on the brass post, which were wire brushed to a very smooth finish. The fatal flaw of these is that the handle post tapered to a fairly small diameter to the handle attachment and the very thin stock for the handles tended to bend and break very easily. I have seen larger washers and coins brazed to the post for replacements. The set used on my heavily modified Czech rental bass had square stock aluminum as the handles for all four tuning machines! Thanks to James Condino for the nice salvage set from one of his American Standard restoration projects.