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Major & Minor Scales read up if you dont know them!!!

Discussion in 'General Instruction [BG]' started by cassanova, May 27, 2003.


  1. cassanova

    cassanova

    Sep 4, 2000
    Florida
    After reading a couple of Osama_Spears posts, I realize that he has a hard time understanding the concept of scales. This made me think that maybe there are others here as who dont get it either. So I am simply going to write out the scales for him/them.

    I am putting them in the order of the circle of 5ths as it was taught to me. This will hopefully help teach you that as well. I probably shouldve looked at this before posting but I forgot about it and am too tired to go back and redo it so if its wrong I apologize. Click here for more info on the Circle of 5ths.

    We'll start with the major scales first. Then imediatly underneath it will be its natural minor (aka aeolian mode) This way it'll be easier for you to analize why/what makes it the minor. There are two other variations of the minor scale. They are the harmonic and melodic minor. But we'll get into those once you grasp these.

    1.C
    C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C
    C-D-Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C

    2.G
    G-A-B-C-D-E-F-#G
    G-A-Bb-C-D-Eb-F-G

    3.D
    D-E-F#-G-A-B-C#-D
    D-E-F-G-A Bb-C-D

    4.A
    A-B-C#-D-E-F#-G#-A
    A B C D E F G A

    5.E
    E-F#-G#-A-B-C#-D#-E
    E-F#-G-A-B-C-D-E

    6.B
    B-C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A#-B
    B-C#-D-E-F#-G-A-B

    7.F#
    F#-G#-A#-B-C#-D#-F-F#
    F#-G#-A-B-C#-D-E-F#

    8.F
    F-G-A-Bb-C-D-E-F
    F G Ab Bb C Db Eb F

    9.Bb
    Bb-C-D-Eb-F-G-A-Bb
    Bb-C-Db-Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb

    10.Eb
    Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C-D-Eb
    Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb

    11.Ab
    Ab-Bb-C-Db-Eb-F-G-Ab
    Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb-Fb-Gb-Ab

    12.C#
    C#-D#-E#-F#-G#-A#-B#-C#
    C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A-B-C#


    If you notice each of these scales consists of 8 notes. The 8 notes in each scale are numbered 1-8 in numerical order. These numbers are called intervals.

    We'll use C as our example because 1. Every other scale is built off it. 2. It contains no sharps or flats. (accidentals) C=1 D=2 E=3 F=4 G=5 A=6 B=7 C=8 (the 1 & 8 play a duel role, it is the root or 1 & the octave or 8) This applies to every key and to both major and minor scales. In this case of C major the 3, 6, & 7 are major. Now, if you look at the scales natural minor you'll notice that the 3, 6, and 7 are one half step (1 fret) lower. Making them a a natural minor. For more detailed information on intervals click here

    Hope this helps you to some extent. If you have any question please feel free to ask. I or someone else will be more than willing to help.

    Osama, even if you dont understand what Im talking about with the major and minor stuff, All the notes are there for you, so theres no reason you shouldnt be able to learn the scales now. Tke the time to write them down and then practice them.

    There will be a quiz on them in the near future to see if you've been trying to learn them.
     
  2. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    Good work, Cass - but I'm afraid I've got some corrections for you.

    E Minor should be E F# G A B C D E. It's F# not F.

    B Minor should be B C# D E F# G A B. It's G not G#.

    F# Major should be F# G# A# B C# D# E# F#. It's E#, not F.

    F Major should be F G A Bb C D E F. It's Bb not A#.

    F Minor should be F G Ab Bb C Bb Eb F. It's a flat key, not a sharp key. So, Ab not G#, Bb not A#, and Db not C#. And, it's Eb, not E natural.

    Eb Minor should be Eb F Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb. It's a Cb not a C. With the C natural, it's actually Eb Dorian.

    Ab Minor should be Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab. They're all flats, no naturals.

    C# Major should be C# D# E# F# G# A# B# C#. All sharps, no naturals.

    You've gotta remember that each scale can only contain one (no more no less) of each note name. So it can't go F G A A# C, because then, you've got 2 As, and no B. It's gotta have one of each note name in there. Every F scale will be some variation on F G A B C D E, etc.

    Also, you've not really gone by the cycle of 5ths there. You have, up until F#, but then you went to F. The order, going by the cycle, should be:

    C G D A E B F#/Gb C#/Db G#/Ab D#/Eb Bb F

    Also note that you've included C# instead of Db, F# instead of Gb, Ab instead of G#, and Eb instead of D#. I think it's a better idea to include the enharmonics that you will actually see used.

    You could see written either F# Major or Gb Major (6 sharps vs 6 flats). Though, you're only likely to see F# Minor (3 sharps), not Gb Minor (too many sharps, not really even a key!). Also, you'll probably see Db Major (5 flats) not C# Major (7 sharps). However, you'll see C# Minor (4 sharps) not Db Minor (too many flats to contemplate!). You'll see G# Minor (5 sharps) not Ab Minor (7 flats), but Ab Major (4 flats) not G# Major (too many sharps to contemplate!). You could see D# Minor or Eb Minor (6 sharps vs 6 flats), but you'll see Eb Major (3 flats) not D# Major.

    Here are all the keys I think are worth including:

    C Major
    G Major
    D Major
    A Major
    E Major
    B Major
    F# Major
    Gb Major
    Db Major
    Ab Major
    Eb Major
    Bb Major
    F Major

    A Minor
    E Minor
    B Minor
    F# Minor
    C# Minor
    G# Minor
    D# Minor
    Eb Minor
    Bb Minor
    F Minor
    C Minor
    G Minor
    D Minor

    Now, you will see chord symbols written for ones not included there - for example, you might see Abm, or Dbm. But, you won't see a tune written in the key of Abm or Dbm - IME. Now that I've said that, some wiseass is probably gonna find me a counter example to prove me wrong :D

    Still, I'm gonna stick by it. You wouldn't write a piece in Abm, you'd write it in G# minor. The reason is, the key signature is more friendly. G# minor only has 5 sharps, whereas Ab minor would have 7 flats.

    I contend that I've never seen a piece written in any key that's not in that list I gave you. Technically, Ab minor (and Cb major therefore) exist as keys - the key signature is 7 flats - Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb, but IME you don't see it used.

    Whereas, G# major, for example - I'm not sure even exists as a key. The G# Major scale would be:

    G# A# B# C# D# E# Fx

    Where Fx means F Double-Sharp. I've never seen a key signature with double sharps in :D

    Of course, not that you used G# Major in your list - I'm just giving some background info :)




    And, as a minor (no pun intended) point, I'd say the scales contain 7 notes, not 8. They only contain 7 different notes, as soon as you add an 8th, you're repeating yourself. Sure, you tend to play them with 8 (at least) - as they sound more complete, but the scales themselves are 7 notes.
     
  3. cassanova

    cassanova

    Sep 4, 2000
    Florida
    I agree with you on that. I know that when you play the 8th you're repeating yourself. I was merely trying explain to him why the root is also called the 8th. Just tryin to keep it as simple as possible right now thats all.

    BTW..thanks for makin me feel like I dont know what I was doing ;)

    Seriously, I appriciate the corrections. Was stupid mistakes on my part that couldve been prevented if I had just gotten off my lazy @ss gotten my book and double checked my work a bit better. Id also hate for him or anyone else to look like an idiot quoting what I said to someones, then goin "well cass told me it was like that"
     
  4. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    lol, sorry, I wasn't trying to do that. I just thought it best that people learn the correct note names for the scales.
     
  5. PollyBass

    PollyBass ******

    Jun 25, 2001
    Shreveport, LA
    Gee, I usre hope Moley see there is notin wrong with my post.

    He might write a 15 page essay on the crap.
     
  6. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    Polly, the day you make a post about theory... well, we'll all have died from the pole shift, which will have coincided with hell freezing over.
     
  7. PollyBass

    PollyBass ******

    Jun 25, 2001
    Shreveport, LA
    And what makes you think I don't know a great deal of it?

    Sounds kind of arogant to me.

    Maybe I don't think I need to be a walking theory correction book.

    There IS more to bass playing then theory, I hope you know. Say, playing bass in a band, and gigging.

    Gigging. Not a computer microphone,,,, gigging.

    I try to let emotian flow thru my bass rather than learned theory, so I guess I don't see the need to discuss it.

    Good idea cass.

    Thats all I have to say in this thread.
     
  8. cassanova

    cassanova

    Sep 4, 2000
    Florida
    LOL! I gotta give it to ya, that's a good 'un. A whole lot more original than "Holy Moley", "Wholly Moley", "Guacamole" etc.

    Glad you like it

    I was always taught there is no such notes as: E#, Fb & B#.

    Heh, well there are. E# sounds the same as F, Fb sounds the same as E, and B# sounds the same as C.

    But, yes, they do exist, and from a theory point of view, in scales, Fb and E are not the same.


    I really never knew that. Thanks!!


    Well, they have the same pitch. But you're only gonna confuse matters if you start talkin' 'bout A#s in an F Major scale And from a theory point of view, it's incorrect.

    Thats one of the things I really hate about theory.



    You're right. I was trying to keep it as simple as possible for him right now because he says he's read all the threads on scales and still doesnt get it. I thought I did use Ab though. I think I have it listed as #11.

    You did use Ab, but not G#. You used Ab Minor rather than G# Minor. Which is cool, if you wanna play in Ab Minor, but from a practical standpoint, I think G# Minor is more useful to know.

    Its gotta exist somewhere because theres a G# note. Right? Not sayin that to discredit you. But it just sounds logical to me.


    They do occur in music, but I've only ever seen them as accidentals. The symbol for double-sharp is an x, like in the example I gave. Double flats exist too, and the symbol for that is just 2 flats - e.g. Ebb.

    The only time Ive ever seen anything double flatted or sharped has been on chord charts. like a ##5 or bb7 or somethin like that.


    lol, sorry, I wasn't trying to do that. I just thought it best that people learn the correct note names for the scales.

    I know, Im really glad you corrected me. I wouldnt want someone learning the wrong note names either.
     
  9. hey...just skimmed this thread.


    I apoligize for sounding like a dumbass.

    and I appreciate the time you took to help me...


    thanks alot man!
     
  10. just copied 'em down...about to go try 'em out.


    again...cass,thanks for taking your time to do this for me.


    *HUG!*


    ...ok,sorry :meh:







    :)
     
  11. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    LOL, don't take it so seriously, Polly...
     
  12. cassanova

    cassanova

    Sep 4, 2000
    Florida
     
  13.  
  14. dun mean to be a pest...but can yah repost the correct versions of the 12 maj. scales?

    I'd greatly appreciate it,thanks!
     
  15. stephanie

    stephanie

    Nov 14, 2000
    Scranton, PA
    C Major:
    C D E F G A B C

    G Major:
    G A B C D E F# G

    D Major:
    D E F# G A B C# D

    A Major:
    A B C# D E F# G# A

    E Major:
    E F# G# A B C# D# E

    B Major:
    B C# D# E F# G# A# B
    /
    Cb Major:
    Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb Cb

    F# Major:
    F# G# A# B C# D# E# F#
    /
    Gb Major:
    Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb

    C# Major:
    C# D# E# F# G# A# B# C#
    /
    Db Major:
    Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db

    G# Major:
    G# A# B# C# D# E# F## G#
    /
    Ab Major:
    Ab Bb C Db Eb F G Ab

    D# Major:
    D# E# F## G# A# B# C## D#
    /
    Eb Major:
    Eb F G Ab Bb C D Eb

    Bb Major:
    Bb C D Eb F G A Bb

    F Major:
    F G A Bb C D E F

    *Hope these are correct. Some scales, I'm sure, aren't really used (like D# Major). I put them in there to show enharmonics (notes that are played on the same fret and string but have 2 different names).
     
  16. cassanova

    cassanova

    Sep 4, 2000
    Florida
    Natural minors in what should now be the propor order of the circle of fifths C-G-D-A-E-B-F#/Gb-C#/Db- G#/Ab-D#/Eb-Bb-F



    1.C

    C-D-Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C

    2.G

    G-A-Bb-C-D-Eb-F-G

    3.D

    D-E-F-G-A Bb-C-D

    4.A

    A B C D E F G A

    5.E

    E-F#-G-A-B-C-D-E

    6.B

    B-C#-D-E-F#-G-A-B

    7.F#

    F#-G#-A-B-C#-D-E-F#

    8.C#

    C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A-B-C#

    9.Ab

    Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb-Fb-Gb-Ab

    10.Eb

    Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb

    11.Bb

    Bb-C-Db-Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb

    12.F

    F G Ab Bb C Db Eb F
     
  17. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    You nailed it this time, Cass :cool: ...

    ...but for one mistake, you posted C# Major instead of C# Minor ;) (no.8 on the minors list).
     
  18. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    Him, definitely ;)
     
  19. cassanova

    cassanova

    Sep 4, 2000
    Florida
    correction made.
     
  20. moley

    moley

    Sep 5, 2002
    Hampshire, UK
    Cool.

    You nailed it this time, Cass :)