I've been trying to read as much as I can about how scales and modes relate to chords, and I'm finding so much useful information here on talkbass. Thanks everyone! But what I can't find is a great method for the beginner to memorize scales, modes and the components of a given chord. In many places we're told to "memorize the scales up and down the fretboard", and I guess it's just assumed that we also have to memorize each key signature, and hence also the circle of fifths, as well as each mode of each scale, right? But how does one go about doing this? How do you get to the point where given a chord in text form, eg C#mi7(b5), you can instantly know what notes are in it, which scale it's from, which notes are in that scale, and which mode it's in? (does that make sense? I'm still learning, sorry!) It's just that I get so frustrated and discouraged when I see a chord name and I have to pause to work out what notes are in it, let alone trying to memorize each key signature and what notes are in a given scale. Is this just a "practice makes perfect" sort of situation, where I just have to grin and bear it and eventually I'll be able to list scales and modes effortlessly while drunk and hopping on one leg? Or is there a really good excercise out there that will help me understand all this? I have a feeling I'm gonna get a bunch of answers that amount to "Just go do Pacman's sure fire way of learning scales." Is that all I have to do? Am I making it seem more complicated than it really is? Thanks everyone!