# Help with intervals within chords

Discussion in 'General Instruction [BG]' started by paniak17, Jun 9, 2004.

1. ### paniak17

Mar 19, 2004
Northwest, Indiana
i know the 3rd and 5th to C are E and G, I know the 3rd and 5th and b3rd and 5th to any note because its a movable shape. So i know all of the Maj. and Minor Chords...but i want to know is how do you find a 6th, a 7th or any other note you need to build chords...is there a formula? please help!

2. ### Bruce LindfieldUnprofessional TalkBass ContributorGold Supporting Member

It's based on the scale or mode, that applies at the time.

3. ### pontz

Oct 31, 2003
CT
paniak17,

The way I learned this stuff was by using the major scale as a starting point. The degrees of a major scale are 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8. C major is a great scale to work with because the notes are C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. No sharps or flats. Add a number to each note, C1-D2-E3-F4-G5-A6-B7-C1(8)-D9-ETC. You have to keep counting because some chords call for 9th, 11s, 13th, etc which are the 2, 4, and 6 above the octave. Does this make sense so far (I'm no theory guru, so please correct me if I'm wrong here)?

Now, lets apply this to C minor (the aeolian mode). The degress of the minor scale are 1-2-flat3-4-5-flat6-flat7-8. So To turn C major into C minor all you have to do is flat the 3,6, and 7. The note become C-D-Eflat-F-G-Aflat-Bflat-C. Piece of cake.

Here is a little chart I made that might help:

Ionian (Major scale) degrees: 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 Good over: M,M7,M6 chords
Dorian degrees: 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7 Good over: m,m7,m6 chords
Phrygian degrees: 1-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7 Good over: m,m7 chords
Lydian degrees: 1-2-3-#4-5-6-7 Good over: M,M7,M6 chords
Mixolydian degrees: 1-2-3-4-5-6-b7 Good over: M,7 chords
Aeolian (Minor scale) degrees: 1-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7 Good over: m,m7,m6 hords
Locrian degrees: 1-b2-b3-4-b5-b6-b7 Good over: dim,m7b5 chords

Remember the modes are also ordered. Ionian is the major scale and first degree of that scale, Dorian is the second degree. So If you are playing over a C major chord you can play C major (Ionian), D dorian, E Phrygian, F Lydian, etc.

Have fun,

Pontz.

4. ### tim99Supporting Member

Jan 28, 2003

Yes. There is a formula.

For the major scale it is:

-W-W-H-W-W-W-H-
c d e f g a b c

W is a whole note step

H is a half note step

H, half note is one fret

W, whole note is two half steps or two frets

Look at the piano keyboard, and see that there are not any black keys between the e and the f, or between the b and the c, because there is only one half step between those notes. So if you start a major scale on any other note, you end up with a mixture of white and black keys, but you use the same wwhwwwh formula to get the same do re mi fa so la ti do sound.

Tim99.

5. ### tim99Supporting Member

Jan 28, 2003
So a 6th is one whole step up from a 5th, and a 7th is one half step down from the octive, or root note.

I walk around saying C E G, G B D, D F# A, A C# E...etc. all the way around.

So then I can figure out the 2 4 6 7 from each of those notes. But that is slow, because it is figuring, not knowing. It works, but not a playing speed.

I need to advance to saying something like "sixth: C A, A F#..." etc. for each of the intervals. Hey. Thanks. I might just work on that this summer.

Tim99.

6. ### paniak17

Mar 19, 2004
Northwest, Indiana
THANK YOU GUYS! THAT HELPS A LOT!

damn i love talkbass!

7. ### cassanova

Sep 4, 2000
Florida
This should help out a littel more.

Intervals