Hey doug, I was wondering if you could give me some advice on modulation. I wrote this one piece and it involves modulation of a half-step twice, I modulate up a half-step first, then, after a few measures, another half-step. My question is this; how do I make the modulation sound more natural or make it sound smoother. I have this one music composition book and it says that there is no need for a connecting cadence for modulation of a half-step or whole-step. I'am not saying that's wrong, but how do you make key changes sound smoother and less abrupt. Thanks.