OK - he BEGRUDGINGLY is now allowing me to show him the boxes. Here's the next hurdle to clear: I am at a loss to explain the ROOT (yeah - it SHOULD be easy) and all the numerical names of the associated notes in any key - but let's start with a C[SUP]maj [/SUP]first. I know it's not like pulling teeth - in this case, it's more 'installing teeth' with a hammer to this guy for him to learn something new. He still gets all squinty-eyed when I go into a new area - but there's hope at least. Here's an even bigger request: Anyone got any suggestions on teaching him the Circle of Fifths? And --- talking 'Modes' - is there a way to tell him in a different language or perhaps not in the way I learned them to un-muddy the water a tad bit? That would be helpful. I'm in a rut to explain it to him without all the 'technical gobbledegook' (his words, not mine). Determinately a hard-case student have I (my Yoda-ism for the week) but there's light at the end of the tunnel. He's softening just a bit.